ارزیابی شاخص‌های یکپارچگی میراث شهری با استفاده از فرایند تحلیل شبکه (ANP)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مرمت بناها و بافت‌های تاریخی، دانشکده معماری، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، دانشکده معماری، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده معماری، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

10.22052/jias.2024.253743.1256

چکیده

مفهوم «یکپارچگی» در فهرست میراث جهانی یونسکو به‌عنوان یکی از شرایط ثبت مکان‌های فرهنگی برگزیده شده است. در شهرهای تاریخی زنده، که پویا هستند و در معرض تغییر قرار دارند، استفاده از چنین مفاهیم انتخابی، بسیار پیچیده است و نامشخص بودن ابعاد مرتبط با آن، ضرورت چنین پژوهش‌هایی را فراهم می‌کند. به عبارت دیگر، ابعاد و عوامل یکپارچگی می‌تواند به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین ابزارها در برنامه‌ریزی و سیاست‌گذاری‌های میراث شهری استفاده شود. گستردگی و تنوعِ شاخص‌های یکپارچگی ایجاب می‌کند تا این شاخص‌ها برحسب نقش و عملکردشان مورد توجه قرار گیرند، که به‌طور مشخص هریک دارای ارزش متفاوتی از یکدیگر هستند. لذا این پژوهش با فرض یکسان نبودن وزن معیارها، زیرمعیارها و شاخص‌های یکپارچگی میراث شهری و با هدف شناخت و ارزیابی آن‌ها انجام شده است، برای رسیدن به این هدف ابتدا با مطالعات نظری، دسته‌بندی عوامل مرتبط با یکپارچگی میراث شهری انجام پذیرفته، سپس از مدل تحلیل شبکه(ANP) با پیش‌فرض روابط درونی میان زیرمعیار‌های تحقیق و برای انعکاس ارتباطات متقابل میان زیرمعیارها، از روش DEMATEL استفاده شده است. پژوهش از نوع اکتشافی بوده که به‌لحاظ روش، تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی است. بر این اساس پس از ارزیابی شاخص‌ها با استفاده از مدل تحلیل شبکه، این نتیجه به دست می‌آید که «حفظ شواهد و نمونه‌های معتبر یک یا چند دورۀ خاص»، «ارتباط وضعیت فعلی با عملکرد گذشته»، «ارتباط وضعیت فعلی با طرح اصیل اولیه»، «استفادۀ اقتصادی از عملکرد و کاربرد دارایی‌های میراث»، «در نظر گرفتن نیازها و مشارکت جامعۀ محلی در حفظ منطقه» بیشترین وزن و درنتیجه، بیشترین تأثیر را در بین شاخص‌های یکپارچگی میراث شهری داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


جیحانی، حمیدرضا، و ثمینه صابری. 1401. ارزیابی یکپارچگی در محدوده‌های شهریِ تاریخی با تکیه بر مطالعۀ محلۀ سلطان امیر احمد کاشان و محدوده‌‌های پیرامون. مطالعات معماری ایران، ش. 22: ۵۵ـ۷۹.
حبیبی، آرش، صدیقه ایزدیار، و اعظم سرافرازی. 1393. تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیارۀ فازی. تهران: کتیبۀ گیل.
حناچی، پیروز، محمدحسن خادم‌زاده، حمیدرضا شایان، حامد کامل‌نیا، و محمدجواد مهدوی‌نژاد. 1386. بررسی تطبیقی تجارب مرمت شهری در ایران و جهان با نگاهی ویژه به بافت تاریخی شهر یزد. یزد: سبحان نور.
حناچی، پیروز، محمدحسن خادم‌زاده، و هانیه فراهانی. 1402. نسبت اصالت و یکپارچگی در مرمت میراث معماری. مطالعات معماری ایران، ش. 23: ۲۱۵ـ2۲۹.
رازقی، علیرضا، محمدتقی پیربابایی، و حمید ندیمی. 1392. علل بروز تعارض‌های اجتماعی در حفاظت از میراث معماری (مطالعۀ موردی: مجموعه ثبت جهانی گنبد و ارگ سلطانیه). مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی، ش. 13: 45ـ54.
زبردست، اسفندیار. 1380.کاربرد فرایند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی در برنامه‌ریزی شهری و منطقه‌ای. هنرهای زیبا، ش. 10: 13ـ21.
زینل‌زاده، ستاره، و محمد جاهدقدمی. 1395. تبیین و اولویت‌سنجی ابعاد تأثیرگذار جهت تحقق نوسازی مشارکتی در بافت فرسودۀ شهری (نمونۀ موردی: محلۀ شهید خوب بخت تهران). باغ نظر 13(43): 61ـ76.
سجادزاده، حسن، مریم حمیدی‌نیا، و رضوان دالوند. 1396. سنجش و ارزیابی ابعاد محرک توسعه در بازآفرینی محله‌های سنتی؛ نمونۀ موردی: محلۀ حاجی در بافت تاریخی شهر همدان. جغرافیا و توسعه 15(49 ): 1ـ22.
شعله، مهسا، مریم روستا، و زهرا هدایتی‌مقدم. بررسی شرایط یکپارچگی بصری-کالبدی مجموعه بناهای باارزش با کاربست روش ارزیابی تأثیرات میراثی (HIA) (نمونۀ مطالعاتی: مجموعه بناهای زندیه شیراز). فصلنامۀ پژوهش‌های معماری اسلامی، ش. 32: 19ـ38.
معتمدی‌مهر، اکبر، رضا حسن‌پور، و رقیه رضایی. 1393. بهسازی و نوسازی بافت‌های فرسودۀ شهری با تأکید بر مشارکت مردمی (مطالعۀ موردی: محلۀ قیلر قروه). مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی سکونتگاه‌های انسانی 9(26): 29ـ44.
هولستی، ال.آر. 2012. تحلیل محتوا در علوم اجتماعی و انسانی. چ۴. ترجمۀ نادر سالارزاده امیری. 1396. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی.
یوکیلهتو، یوکا. 1999. تاریخ حفاظت معماری. ترجمۀ محمدحسن طالبیان و خشایار بهاری. 1387. تهران: روزنه.
Abouelmagd, D. and S. Elrawy .2022. Cultural heritage and sustainable urban development: The case of port said city in Egypt. Cogent Social Sciences 8(1). 2088460.
Al-Alawi, S., Knippschild, R., Battis-Schinker, E., and Knoop, B .2022. Linking Cultural Built Heritage and Sustainable Urban Development: Insights into Strategic Development Recommendations for the German-Polish Border Region. disP-The Planning Review, 58(2), 4-15.‏
Alberts, H. C., and H. D. Hazen, 2010. Maintaining authenticity and integrity at cultural world heritage sites. Geographical Review 100(1): 56-73.
Al-Hajj, S., M. El Hechi, M. Chahrour, S. H. Farran, and H. Kaafarani. 2022. Factors affecting road safety compliance in a low-and middle-income country: an observational study from Lebanon. PLOS global public health 2(3): e0000154.
Andrews, T. D., and S. Buggey. 2008. Authenticity in Aboriginal cultural landscapes. APT bulletin 39(2/3): 63-71.
Araoz, G. F. 2008. World-heritage historic urban landscapes: Defining and protecting authenticity. APT bulletin 39(2/3): 33-37.
Ashrafi, B., M. Kloos, and C. Neugebauer. 2021. Heritage Impact Assessment, beyond an Assessment Tool: A comparative analysis of urban development impact on visual integrity in four UNESCO World Heritage Properties. Journal of Cultural Heritage, no. 47: 199-207.
Balan, V., G. S. Miller, L. Kaplun, K. Balan, Z. Z. Chong, F. Li, ... and G. Tzivion. 2008. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 283(41): 27810-27819.
Bandarin, F., and R. Van Oers. 2012. The historic urban landscape: managing heritage in an urban century. John Wiley & Sons.
Boccardi, G. 2019. Authenticity in the heritage context: A reflection beyond the Nara document. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice 10(1): 4-18.
Chapagain, N. K. 2016. Contextual approach to the question of authenticity in heritage management and tourism. Journal of Heritage Management 1(2): 160-169.
Charter, V. 1964. International charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites. Venice, Italy.
Coe. 1966a. Resolution (66) 19: Criteria and Methods of Cataloguing Ancient Historical or Artistic Sites, Council of Europe. Barcelona, Palma.
Coe. 1966b. Resolution (66) 20, The Reviving of Monuments, Council of Europe. Vienna.
Coe. 1968a. Resolution (68) 11: on the Principles and Practice of the Active Preservation and Rehabilitation of Groups and Areas of Buildings of Historical or Artistic Interest, Council ofEurope. Bath.
Coe. 1968b. Resolution (68) 12 on the Active Maintenance of Monuments, Groups and Areas of Buildings of Historical or Artistic Interest within the Context of Regional Planning, Council ofEurope. The Hague.
Coe. 1976. Resolution (76) 28: Concerning the Adaptation of Laws and Regulations to the Requirements of Integrated Conservation of the Architectural Heritage, Council of Europe. Switzerland.
Coe. 1989. Recommendation 1093 (1989) on the Education of Migrants’ Children, Adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 31 January 1989. Council of Europe. Strasbourg.
Coe .1990. Recommendation No. R(90) 20 on the Protection and Conservation of the Industrial,Technical and Civil Engineering Heritage in Europe, Council of Europe, Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 13 September 1990 at the 443 rd meeting of the Ministers ’Deputies.
Coe. 1991a. Recommendation No. R(91) 6 on Measures Likely to Promote the Funding of the Conservation of the Architectural Heritage, Council of Europe, Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 11 April 1991 at the 456 the meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.
Coe. 1991b.Recommendation No. R(91) 13 on the Protection of the Twentieth-Century Architectural-Heritage, Council of Europe, Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 9 September 1991 at the 461st meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.
Coe. 1992. European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised), European Treaty Series-No. 143, Council of Europe. Valetta.
Coe. 1995. Recommendation No. R (95) 9 on the integrated conservation of cultural landscape areas as part of landscape policies.
Coe. 1996. Fourth European Conference of Ministers Responsible for the Cultural Heritage, Council of Europe. Helsinki.
Coe. 2001. Fifth European Conference of Ministers Responsible for the Cultural Heritage, Council of Europe. Potrero.
Coe. 2005. Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, Council of Europe Treaty Series- No.199, Council of Europe. Faro.
Coe. 1975a. The Resolutions of Bruges: Principles Governing the Rehabilitation of Historic Towns, Council of Europe. Bruges.
Coe. 1975b. The Declaration of Amsterdam, Congress on the European Architectural Heritage, Council of Europe. Amsterdam.
Coe. 1985. Convention for the protection of the architectural heritage of Europe. (ETS No. 121) Granada, Spain.
Coe. 1987. Recommendation No. R(87) 24 on European Industrial Town, Council of Europe. Lille, Dortmund.
Cohen, E., and S. A. Cohen. 2012. Authentication: Hot and cool. Annals of Tourism Research 39(3): 1295-1314.
Coy, P. G., and T. Hedeen. 2005. A stage model of social movement co-optation: Community mediation in the United States. The Sociological Quarterly 46(3): 405-435.
Etcp-Ceu. 1998. The New Charter of Athens 1998: International Agreement and Declaration by the National Associations and Institutes of Town Planners in the European Community, European Council of Town Planners (ECTP). Amsterdam.
Dasgupta, S. and P. Garg. 2021. The urban development and heritage conundrum: the challenges of hill-station of Darjeeling. Journal of Urban Design 26(2): 184-208.
Fadaei Nezhad Bahramjerdi, S., and P. Hanachi. 2018. Integrity Evaluation in Conservation of Amir-chakhmagh Square in Yazd, Iran. Armanshar 11(24): 15-27.‏
Fadaei Nezhad, S., P. Eshrati, and D. Eshrati. 2016. Developing a conceptual framework of integrity in urban heritage conservation. Armanshar 9(16): 95-104.‏
Gazley, B., Chang, W. K., and Bingham, L. B. 2006. Collaboration and citizen participation in community mediation centers. Review of Policy Research 23(4), 843-863.‏
Gullino, P., and F. J. J. O. C. H. Larcher. 2013. Integrity in UNESCO World Heritage Sites. A comparative study for rural landscapes 14(5): 389-395.
Gustafsson, C. and M. Ripp. 2022. A metamodel for heritage-based urban recovery. Built Heritage 6(1): 1-24.
Hartshorne, S. A. 2020. ‘City of History and Progress’: Heritage and urban development in Leicester 1934 to 2010 (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester).
Hedeen, T. 2004. The evolution and evaluation of community mediation: Limited research suggests unlimited progress. Conflict Resol. Q., 22: 101.
Hosagrahar, J. 2019. The UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape. Report of the Second Consultation on its Implementation by Member States, 2019, Paris. France: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Hsu, C. W., T. C. Kuo, S. H. Chen, and A. H. Hu. 2013. Using DEMATEL to develop a carbon management model of supplier selection in green supply chain management. Journal of cleaner production, no. 56: 164-172.
Icomos-Ifla. 2017. Document on Historic Urban Public Parks, Icomos. New Delhi.
Charter, V. 1964. International charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites. Venice, Italy.
Icomos. 1972 . Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings, Icomos, Budapest.
Icomos. 1976. Charter of Cultural Tourism. Mexico.
Icomos. 1981. Historic Gardens: The Florence Charter 1981, Prepared by the Icomos-IFLAInternational Committee for Historic Garden, adopted by Icomos in 1982.Florence.
Icomos. 1982a. Declaration of Dresden on the Reconstruction of Monuments Destroyed by War, Icomos.Dresden.
Icomos. 1982b. Tlaxcala declaration on the revitalization of small settlements, Third Inter-American Symposium on the Conservation of the Building, Heritage. Trinidad, Tlaxcala.
Icomos. 1983. Appleton Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built Environment.Canada, Ottawa.
Icomos. 1987. Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington Charter), Icomos. Washington, DC.
Icomos. 1993. Guidelines on Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites, IComos. Colombo.
Icomos. 1994. The Nara Document on Authenticity. [Online]. Drafted by the 45 Participants at the Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, Nara. Japan.
Icomos. 1996a. The declaration of san Antonio, InterAmerican Symposium on Authenticity in the Conservation and Management of the Cultural Heritage to discuss the meaning of authenticity in preservation in the Americas. San Antonio, Texas.
Icomos. 1996b. Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage, Icomos. Sofia.
Icomos. 1999a. Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage, Icomos. Mexico.
Icomos. 1999b. The Icomos Cultural Tourism Charter, Approved by Icomos General Assembly atthe 12th General Assembly in Mexico in October, Icomos International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism. Burwood, Victoria.
Icomos. 1999c. Principles for the Preservation of Historic Timber Structures. Mexico.
Icomos. 2003a. Icomos Principles for the Preservation and Conservation-Restoration of Wall Paintings, Icomos. Victoria Falls.
Icomos. 2003b. The Hoi An, Declaration on Conservation of Historic Districts of Asia. Hoi An.
Icomos. 2003c. Indonesia Charter for Heritage Conservation, ICOMOS and Ministry of Culture and Tourism Republic of Indonesia.Ciloto. Indonesia.
Icomos. 2003d. The Nizhny Tagil Charter for the Industrial Heritage, TICCIH. Moscow.
Icomos. 2005. Xi’an declaration on the conservation of the setting of heritage structures, Sites, and Areas. Xi’an, China.
Icomos. 2008a. The Icomos Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites, Icomos. Quebec.
Icomos. 2008b. The Icomos Charter on Cultural Routes. Quebec.
Icomos. 2008c. Quebec Declaration on the Preservation of the Spirit of Place. Quebec.
Icomos. 2010. ICOMOS New Zealand Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage Value. New Zealand, Auckland.
Icomos. 2011a. The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Icomos, Towns and Urban Areas. Paris.
Icomos. 2011b. The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas. Paris.
Icomos. 2011c. The Paris Declaration on Heritage as a Driver of Development, Unesco Headquarters, France. Paris.
Icomos. 2011d. The Dublin Principles for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage Sites, Structures, Areas and Landscapes. Paris.
Icomos. 2011e. The Paris Declaration on Heritage as a Driver of Development, Unesco Headquarters. France. Paris.
Icomos. 2013. The Australia Icomos Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter): Guidelines to the Burra Charter: Cultural Significance and Conservation Policy. Australia, Sydney.
Icomos. 2015. Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China, Icomos China, Beijing, available online: Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China. China
Icomos. 2017a. Salalah Guidelines for the Management of Public Archeological Sites, Icomos. New Delhi.
Icomos. 2017b. Principles for the Conservation of Wooden Built Heritage, Icomos. New Delhi.
Icomos. 2017c. Icomos Action Plan: Cultural Heritage and Localizing the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Icomos. 2019. Icomos Climate Change and Heritage Working Group.The future of our pasts: Engaging cultural heritage in climate action. Outline of Climate Change and Cultural Heritage.
Icomos. 2020. Resolution 20GA/19 - People-Centred Approaches to Cultural Heritage. Report of the Resolutions Committee to the 20th Icomos General Assembly.
Icomos. 2021. Icomos guidelines on fortifications and military heritage, available at: AGA_202111_6-1_Icomos_Guidelines_Fortifications_Military Heritage.
Icomos. 2000. The Burra Charter: The Australia Icomos charter for places of cultural significance 1999: with associated guidelines and code on the ethics of co-existence. Australia.
Icomos. 2013. The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS charter for places of cultural significance. Australia.
Icomos, U. J. P., as adopted by the 17th Icomos General Assembly 2011b. The Valletta principles for the safeguarding and management of historic cities, towns and urban areas.
IcomosBrazil. 1987. First Brazilian Seminar about the Preservation and Revitalization of Historic Centers.
Imo. 1931. The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments, adopted at the 1st International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, International Museum Office. Athens.
Jerusalem, D. O. 2006. Declaration of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Statement on the Workshop New approaches to urban conservation. Jerusalem.
-Jharkharia, S., and Shankar, R. 2007. Selection of logistics service provider: An analytic network process (ANP) approach. Omega 35(3), 274-289.‏
Jigyasu, N., and S. S. Imon, 2023. Authenticity and integrity as qualifiers in managing living historic cities. Urban Research & Practice 16(4): 658-674.
Jin, G., X. Shi, D. He, B. Guo, Z. Li, and X. Shi. 2020. Designing a spatial pattern to rebalance the orientation of development and protection in Wuhan. Journal of Geographical Sciences, no. 30: 569-582.
Jokilehto, J. 2017. A history of architectural conservation. Routledge.
Kalman, H. 2014. Heritage Planning: Principles and Process. London: Routledge.
Khalaf, R. 2016. Distinguishing new architecture from old. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice 7(4): 321-339.
Khalaf, R. W. 2020. The implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: Continuity and compatibility as qualifying conditions of integrity. Heritage 3(2): 384-401.
Khalaf, R. W. 2021. World Heritage on the move: Abandoning the assessment of authenticity to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Heritage 4(1): 371-386.
Khalaf, R. W. 2022. Integrity: Enabling a future-oriented approach to cultural heritage. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice 13(1): 5-27.
Labadi, S., Giliberto, F., Rosetti, I., Shetabi, L., & Yildirim, E. 2021. Heritage and the sustainable development goals: Policy guidance for heritage and development actors. International Journal of Heritage Studies.
Labadi, S. 2017. UNESCO, world heritage, and sustainable development: International discourses and local impacts. Collision or collaboration: Archaeology encounters economic development, 45-60.
Larrain de Andraca, I., and D. Rodwell. 2021. Environmental Value for Heritage Conservation and Urban Sustainability: Adaptation in Widely Divergent Climatic Conditions. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice 12(3-4): 478-512.
Li, J., Dai, T., Yin, S., Zhao, Y., Kaya, D. I., & Yang, L. 2022. Promoting conservation or change? The UNESCO label of world heritage (re) shaping urban morphology in the Old Town of Lijiang, China. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 11(6), 1121-1133.
Li‐On, L. 2009. The politics of community mediation: A study of community mediation in Israel. Conflict Resolution Quarterly 26(4): 453-479.
Mitchell, N. 2008. Considering the authenticity of cultural landscape. APT bulletin 39(2/3): 25-31.
OAS. 1967. Organization of American States, The Norms of Quito. Final Report of the Meeting on the Preservation and Utilization of Monuments and Sites of Artistic and Historical Value Held in Quito, Ecuador, from November 29 to December 2, 1967, Organization of American States. Quito.
Onyx, J., and P. Bullen. 2000. Sources of Social Capital in I. Winter (ed) Social Capital and Public Policy in Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Opschoor, H., and L. Tang. 2011. Growth, world heritage and sustainable development: the case of Lijiang City, China. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 18(6): 469-473.
Pereira Roders, A., and R. Van Oers. 2014. Wedding cultural heritage and sustainable development: three years after. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 4(1): 2-15.
Petti, L., C. Trillo, and B. N. Makore. 2020. Cultural heritage and sustainable development targets: a possible harmonisation? Insights from the European Perspective. Sustainability 12(3): 926.
Roders, P. and Hasebe. 2019. Reshaping urban conservation, Springer.
-Rosetti, I., Bertrand Cabral, C., Pereira Roders, A., Jacobs, M., and Albuquerque, R. 2022. Heritage and sustainability: Regulating participation. Sustainability 14(3), 1674.‏
Ross, S. M. 2023. Sustainable Heritage-in-Practice: Relationships, Goals, Localization and Models Evolving Heritage Conservation Practice in the 21st Century, Springer 113-128.
Rössler, M. 2008. Applying authenticity to cultural landscapes. APT bulletin 39(2-3).
Ruskin, J. 1885. The seven lamps of architecture (Vol. 521). John B. Alden.
Silva, A., and A. Roders. 2012. Cultural heritage management and heritage (impact) assessments. Proceedings of the Joint CIB W, 70, W092.
Singh, R. P., P. S. Rana, and S. Kumar. 2019. Intangible dimensions of urban heritage: Learning from holy cities of India. In The Routledge Handbook on Historic Urban Landscapes in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 275-293). Routledge.
SPAB. 1877. Morris, W. 1877. The SPAB Manifesto: the principals of the society for the protection of ancient buildings as set forth upon its foundation. London: Society for Protection of Ancient Building (SPAB).
Stovel, H. 2007. Effective use of authenticity and integrity as world heritage qualifying conditions. City & time 2(3): 21-36.
Stovel, H. 2008. Origins and influence of the Nara document on authenticity. APT bulletin 39(2/3): 9-17.
Taher Tolou Del, M. S., Saleh Sedghpour, B., and Kamali Tabrizi, S. 2020. The semantic conservation of architectural heritage: the missing values. Heritage Science 8(1), 70.‏
-Turner, M., A. Pereira, and M. Patry. 2012. Revealing the Level of Tension between Cultural Heritage and Development in World Heritage Cities (Oszacowanie zakresu konfliktów występujących pomiędzy ochroną dziedzictwa kulturowego a rozwojem w miastach z Listy Światowego Dziedzictwa). Problems of Sustainable Development 7(2): 23-31.
Unesco. 1945. Unesco Constitution. Paris.
Unesco. 1972. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, ConventionConcerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Adopted by the GeneralConference at its 17th session. Paris.
Unesco. 1976a. Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas. 19th Session of the General Conference, Nairobi. Paris.
Unesco. 1976b. Final Report: Informal Consultation of Intergovernmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in the Implementation ofthe Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage held in Morges, Switzerland, 19–20 May 1976; CC-76/WS/25; Paris, France.
Unesco. 1977. Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention; CC-77/CONF.001/8Rev; Paris, France.
Unesco. 1978. World Heritage Center, Operational guidelines for the implementationof the World Heritage Convention, World Heritage Center. Paris.
Unesco. 1998. Suzhou declaration on international Co-operation for the safeguarding and development of historic cities.Suzhou.
Unesco. 2003. Unesco World Heritage Centre. Conclusions and Recommendations of the Conference. In Linking Universal and Local Values: Managing a Sustainable Future for World Heritage.A Conference organized by the Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO, in Collaboration with the Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. Paris.
Unesco. 2005a. Declaration on the Conservation of Historic Urban Landscapes (Decision 29 COM 5D). 15th General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris.
Unesco. 2005b. Vienna Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture - Managing the Historic Urban Landscape. Paris.
Unesco. 2009. 33rd session of the World Heritage Committee Sevilla. Spain.
Unesco. 2009. Hoi An Protocols for Best Conservation Practice in Asia. ProfessionalGuidelines for Assuring and Preserving the Authenticity of Heritage Sites in the Context of the Cultures of Asia. Bangkok.
Unesco. 2010. The 1954 Hague convention for the protection of cultural property in the event ofarmed conflict and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols,, The 1954 Hague Convention and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols – Basic Text009. The Hague.
Unesco. 2010b. A new International Instrument: The Proposed UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL). Preliminary report, first draft and action plan Report of the Meeting of International Experts Held from 17 to 19 February . Headquarters. Paris.
Unesco. 2011. Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Including a Glossary of Definition, Unesco. Paris.
Unesco. 2012. World Heritage Centre. Report of the International Expert Meeting on Integrity for Cultural Heritage. Al Ain,United Arab Emirates. Paris.
Unesco. 2015. Policy document for the integration of a sustainable development perspective into the processes of the World Heritage Convention. Paris.
Unesco. 2016. World Heritage Centre. Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention.
Unesco. 2017. CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE. Paris.
Unesco. 2019a. World Heritage Centre. “Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention WHC.
Unesco. 2019b. WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE Forty-third session Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan 30 June – 10 July 2019.
Unesco. 2021a. operational guidelines for the implementation of the world heritage convention. Unesco world heritage centre.
Unesco. 2021b. world heritage committee extended forty-fourth session Fuzhou. China.
Van Oers, R., and A. Pereira Roders. 2012. Historic cities as model of sustainability. Journal of cultural heritage management and sustainable development 2(1): 4-14.
Vitiello, V., R. Castelluccio, and S. Trampetti. 2022. The Recognition of Cultural Value as an Element for the Preservation of the 20th-Century Heritage: Application of the ICOMOS Multidisciplinary Approach to the ex SMOM of Pozzuoli. Heritage 6(1): 284-299.
Wang, Y., S. Huang, and A. K. Kim, 2015. Toward a framework integrating authenticity and integrity in heritage tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23(10): 1468-1481.
Wu, W. W. 2008. Choosing knowledge management strategies by using a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach. Expert systems with applications 35(3): 828-835.
Xie, Z. 2020. China’s historical evolution of environmental protection along with the forty years’ reform and opening-up. Environmental Science and Ecotechnology, 1: 100001.
Zancheti, S. M., Hidaka, L. T. F., Ribeiro, C., and Aguiar, B.2009. Judgement and validation in the Burra Charter Process: Introducing feedback in assessing the cultural significance of heritage sites. City & Time 4(2), 47-53.‏
Zancheti, S. M., and L. T. F. Hidaka. 2012. Measuring urban heritage conservation: indicator, weights and instruments (part 2).
Zancheti, S., and R. Piccolo Loretto. 2015. Dynamic integrity: a concept to historic urban landscape. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 5(1): 82-94.